This is called a Gusle an instrument from Albania , Croatia,Moldavia and other countries from that region. There are many variations on this instrument but mostly they are played the same. The Gusle has only 1 string and played these countries on the lap as a violin or (small)cello . The back of this one is beautiful decorated . Got it from my very dear friend Willem. Thanks Willem !
The Chinese Gehu is a chinese cello. The strings are running over the bridge which inside is connected with a kind of "umbrella" glued to the snakeskin soundboard. The Gehu I owe I saved from destruction as the round body was cracked and the snake skin was worn out . Glued the body after having it strapped and the snake skin - pittyful- I replaced with calf skin. The case for this instrument is a piece of art itself . The half-round form of the soundbody is in this shape because in this way the bow won't touch the body. and also works as a soundhole .
Aria Tenor renaissance lute. This is a beautiful instrument. The sound is soft and mellow. I use the 10 string guitar now to play the music I used to play on the lute. There are so many disadvantages on playing the lute. 1:tuning this instrument can take over 30 minutes due to the violin peg like tuners ( there are 15) 2:never ever slide with your left hand fingers as you might also take the "wounded" frets (btw there are very tiny dots in the fretboard to show where the frets should be positioned ) 3: your right hand will be a problem as you will not be playing with your nails(no nails touching the strings like with a classical guitar) and ! the position of the right hand is totally different then playing a classical guitar (thumb inwards instead of outwards). You should put your thumb 'p' inwards instead of guitar and also the picking is different as the 'i' and 'm' play in a different way . Mostly you play from lute tablature and there are 3 differnt or better 5 ! English and French resemble ,Spanish and Italian too,but German is really hard to learn. Funny thing is that most guitarists think that "tablature " is a new thing ...noo it is five hundreds years old or more.
Gianini "cavaquina" from Brasil Bought it in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brasil when I was visiting my dear friends there. Really wanted to master this little one but somehow I never managed. The tuning is really different DGBD (open G?) But home and trying it a lot of times it turned out not to be a very good instrument altho the sound is very good.
Hofner bass from Germany .(there should be 2dots above the O ) Hofner made some marvelous instruments. Most famous probably the bassguitar from Paul McCartney from The Beatles ..the so called "violin bass". But they also made some marvelous jazz guitars. This one is an oldy guess around 1967 or so . Should have it repaired as the electronic system is not great. The funny thing is that the top and back are covered with a kind of plastic rubber folio.
(I do not own this bass anymore as I gave it to my guitar-repairman as a payment for the repair on my Orozco also gave him the 7string Russian guitar)
The Chinese Yuegin or better known as the "moon guitar" or "moon lute". I have 2 of them 1 missing 1 fret and the other missing 2. The tuning is G3 D4 G4 D5
This instrument from India supposed to be called "Benjo". It works similar like an Austrian "autoharp" . Friend of mine brought it from India but ...it is more like a curiosa then an instrument . Notice the size of the keys.